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KFT Test (Kidney Function Tests): Purpose, Types, and Procedure

The kidneys eliminate metabolic waste and toxins, such as creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Kidneys regulate extracellular fluid volume, serum osmolality, and electrolyte concentration. They further synthesize hormones like erythropoietin and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D and renin.


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KFT Test (Kidney Function Tests): Purpose, Types, and Procedure


The kidneys eliminate metabolic waste and toxins, such as creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Kidneys regulate extracellular fluid volume, serum osmolality, and electrolyte concentration. They further synthesize hormones like erythropoietin and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D and renin.

KFT test is the profile biochemistry of KFT blood tests and urine tests that help to assess all these renal functions. KFT test is also known as RFT (Renal Functioning Test), Kidney Profile, or Renal Profile.

Who Should Get a Kidney Function Test Done?

People above 18 years should get KFT done under the annual health checkup to rule out kidney dysfunction and aid in early diagnosis.

Doctors suggest KFT if you have comorbidities that can harm the kidneys, such as diabetes, hypertension, or a family history of kidney diseases and facing general kidney issues symptoms like trouble sleeping, frequent urination, or fatigue.

What Does KFT Include?

KFT measures blood urea nitrogen levels(BUN), urea, serum creatinine, albumin,  glomerular filtration rate(GFR), albumin creatinine ratio, urinalysis, and electrolytes.

Types Of KFT Test (Kidney Function Tests)

KFT test includes

Serum creatinine test

Elevated creatinine levels indicate severe kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetes, severe dehydration, cardiac problems, hyperactive thyroid glands, etc.

Blood urea nitrogen

BUN above 20 mg/dL indicates kidney damage. A low level of blood urea nitrogen indicates protein deficiency, liver failure, or malnutrition.

Estimated GFR

Less than 15ml/min of GFR indicates renal failure.

Urinalysis

A urinalysis is done to rule out the presence of protein (proteinuria) and blood in the urine (hematuria).

Albumin-creatinine ratio

ACR of 30-300 indicates severe chronic kidney disease.

How Is The KFT Done?

The KFT test is done with a blood sample and a 24-hour urine sample.

Blood Sample

To estimate serum creatinine levels and blood urea nitrogen levels, blood samples are required. The laboratory technician inserts a small syringe needle into your vein to collect the sample. The blood is collected in a test tube and then sent to a lab for further analysis.

24-Hour Urine Sample

Here, the patient is given containers to collect the urine sample for 24 hours.

The testee is asked to collect urine from the second time of urination of the day until the next morning. Each sample is labeled and should be kept in the refrigerator. Hand over the samples to the laboratory after the 24-hour collection process.

KFT Test Normal Range

KFT test normal range is as follows.

Blood Urea Nitrogen

A normal range of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for children, adult males, and females is 7-20 mg/dL.

Serum Creatinine

The normal levels of serum creatinine

In women is 0.6-1.1 mg/dL.

For men, it is  0.7-1.3 mg/dL.

Albumin

It is a protein that carries various enzymes and hormones in blood circulation.

The normal level of urine albumin is 30 or below 30.

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

If the GFR is 90ml/min or above, it indicates that kidney functions are normal.

If the GFR is between 30ml/min to 89ml/min, it indicates that there is mild to moderate loss of kidney function.

If the GFR is between 15ml/min to 29ml/min, it indicates that there is severe kidney disease.

Albumin Creatinine Ratio (ACR)

A normal level of ACR is less than 30 mg/g. The albumin to creatinine ratio is generally low when kidneys are functioning normally.

Urinalysis

Normal levels of urine protein are up to 150 mg per day.

Electrolytes

Levels of electrolytes are strong indicators of kidney functions. The main electrolytes are sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and chloride.

KFT Test Price

KFT Test price varies from one pathology lab to the other. On average, the KFT test costs around 252INR. The KFT price range is between 150 to 800 INR depending on the laboratory.

Symptoms Of Kidney Problems

Early kidney problems may or may not show signs and symptoms. However, the progression of kidney damage gives rise to various symptoms. Some common symptoms caused by kidney problems are:

●   Increased Blood pressure

●   Frequent urges to urinate

●   Difficulty in urination

●   Stinging pain while urinating

●   Blood in the urine (haematuria)

●   Oedema of the eyes, face, wrists, abdomen, thighs, or ankles (in high levels of protein in urine)

●   Joint or bone pain

●   Back pain (in the middle back) near the kidneys

●   Dehydration

●   Loss of appetite

●   Insomnia

●   Fatigue and Exhaustion

●   Restlessness

●   Confusion and Delirium

●   Breathlessness

●   Dry skin

●   Other symptoms such as nausea and vomiting

Having a single symptom doesn’t indicate a serious underlying cause. It could be an indication of serious kidney dysfunction when multiple symptoms appear simultaneously.

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