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What is Azoospermia? Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & More

Azoospermia is a condition in men where there’s a complete absence of sperm in the semen. Read on to know about its causes and symptoms.

4 min read
What is Azoospermia? Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & More

Have you been trying to conceive with your partner but to no avail? Well, you might have Azoospermia.  

What is Azoospermia?  

The condition of not having sperm in semen is known as Azoospermia. So if a man has Azoospermia, there’d be no sperm in his ejaculation.

Although it is rare, around 1% of men have this condition that is also a direct cause of 10 to 15 percent of infertile cases.

The sperm gets formed in the testicles, travels through the reproductive ducts, and mixes with a fluid found in the seminal ducts.

This merging of sperm and the fluid forms semen (the white ejaculation that comes out of the penis). Unlike low sperm count, in the case of Azoospermia, sperm gets taken out of the equation. Azoospermia in Hindi means Ashukraanuta.

Types and Causes of Azoospermia

There are different types of Azoospermia. If you’re wondering what causes Azoospermia, then here are the different kinds of Azoospermia and Azoospermia causes.

1. Pre-testicular Azoospermia is the First Type of Azoospermia

In this type of Azoospermia, the testicles of the individual are normal, but he’s unable to use them to make sperm. It is a comparatively rare condition. Pre-testicular Azoospermia is Non-obstructive Azoospermia.

In such a circumstance, the body produces low or no sperm due to defects in the functions of testicles.

Causes of Pre-testicular Azoospermia

  • Low hormone levels are causes of pre-testicular azoospermia
  • Genetic disorders are causes of pre-testicular azoospermia

2. Testicular Azoospermia is the Second Type of Azoospermia

As the name suggests, Testicular Azoospermia is caused due to damage to the testicles. It results in the testicles not making sperm in a typical manner. It is also a Non-obstructive Azoospermia.

Causes of Testicular Azoospermia

  • Groin injury is a cause of testicular azoospermia
  • Genetic conditions are causes of testicular azoospermia
  • Cancer, or its treatments are causes of testicular azoospermia
  • Infection in the reproductive duct is a cause of testicular azoospermia

3. Post-testicular Azoospermia

It is Obstructive Azoospermia. In such a condition, the body produces sperm, but the same can’t exit due to an obstruction in the genital tract. As a result, there is no measurable sperm in the individual’s semen. It is common and present in more than 40% of Azoospermia cases.

Obstructive Azoospermia Causes

  • A previous or current infection, like the development of a cyst is a cause of obstructive azoospermia
  • Vasectomy is a cause of obstructive azoospermia
  • Retrograde Ejaculation (A condition where the semen goes to an individuals’ bladder instead of his penis) is a cause of obstructive azoospermia
  • Past surgeries in the pelvic area is a cause of obstructive azoospermia

What are Azoospermia Symptoms?

Some of the possible Non-obstructive Azoospermia symptoms and Obstructive Azoospermia symptoms include:

  • Low Libido is a symptom of azoospermia
  • Erectile dysfunction is a symptom of azoospermia
  • Decreased hair on the body or face is a symptom of azoospermia
  • Swelling, discomfort, or a lump around the testicles are symptoms of azoospermia

Semen analysis is a common technique to know if a person has Azoospermia. In such a test, the doctor asks the individual to ejaculate in a cup and submit it to a lab for testing.

Afterward, an evaluation takes place to conclude if the sample contains living sperm or not. If it doesn’t, then the person may have Azoospermia.

Azoospermia Treatment

Different types of Azoospermia have varying treatments. If it’s Obstructive Azoospermia, it can be treated with Azoospermia surgery that’d remove the blockage. The doctors carry out the Obstructive Azoospermia treatment by reconstructing or reconnecting the tubes that are stopping the sperm from flowing.

If the underlying cause is low hormone production, hormonal treatment might help. However, Non-obstructive Azoospermia treatment can be tricky as it doesn’t necessarily respond to medical treatments.

However, you and your partner can still conceive through Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection or through Vitro Fertilisation. It includes a doctor using a tiny needle to extract sperm from an individual’s testicles.

Azoospermia Treatment in Ayurveda

Some of the recommended Ayurvedic Azoospermia treatments include:

Ashwagandha For Azoospermia

Excessively effective medicine for male infertility, Ashwagandha has anti-inflammatory properties. It’s beneficial for men with erectile dysfunction or Oligospermia, a tonic for the nerves.

Shilajit is used in azoospermia treament

Shilajit is highly recommended for treating Azoospermia because it enhances the core energy for libido.

Moreover, it also provides strength to muscles and balances debility. Shilajit is an excellent rejuvenating tonic that acts as ayurvedic medicine for Azoospermia.

Azoospermia Treatment in Homeopathy

Some of the recommended homeopathic herbs and medicines for Azoospermia are black seeds, horse chestnut, folic acid, Panax ginseng, zinc, and Tribulus Terrestris.

Moreover, many homeopathic doctors also recommended an Azoospermia diet with nutrient-packed foods to increase sperm production and exercising regularly to increase testosterone levels. So, if you were wondering how to treat Azoospermia naturally, use this Azoospermia homeopathic treatment.

Azoospermia Treatment Cost

Wondering how much Azoospermia surgery costs? The best Azoospermia treatment cost in India ranges from INR 25,000 to 70,000. It is slightly on the higher side in metropolitan cities but considerably affordable in smaller cities and towns.

Azoospermia Vs. Oligospermia

Oligospermia and Azoospermia are not the same. So what’s the difference between Azoospermia and Oligospermia? While Azoospermia’ meaning is the absence of sperm in the semen, Oligospermia is characterized by fewer than 5 million sperms per ml of semen.

Azoospermia Success Stories

IVF and ICSE are some of the best treatments for Azoospermia. Here are some of the research findings done by the National Library of Medicine. After their first TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction), around 40% of men have had successful sperm retrievals. About 4 out of 10 couples with Non-obstructive Azoospermia obtained a delivery. However, only 13.4% of men could father their biological child.


The words ‘zero sperm count’ can be somewhat scary for any man, and coping with the diagnosis can be excessively overwhelming. But mind you, having Azoospermia doesn’t mean that you can not have children biologically.

All you have to do is trust your doctor to recommend you the best possible treatment. Procedures like IVF have a tremendous success rate and have worked for many couples. That said, it’s best to take timely action to manage Azoospermia.